Psychologists from the University of Central Lancashire, the University of Gävle in Sweden and Lancaster University investigated the impact of background music on performance by giving people verbal insight problems that are thought to tap creativity. They found that background music significantly impaired’ people’s ability to complete tasks testing verbal creativity. In contrast, no effect was discovered for background library noise.
For example, a participant was shown three words (e.g., dress, dial, flower), with the requirement being to find a single associated word (in this case “sun”) that can be combined to make a common word or phrase (sundress, sundial and sunflower). The researchers used three experiments involving verbal tasks in either a quiet environment or while exposed to Background music with foreign (unfamiliar) lyrics; instrumental music without lyrics and music with lyrics already known.
Dr Neil McLatchie of Lancaster University reported: ‘We found strong evidence of impaired performance when playing background music in comparison to quiet background conditions.’ Researchers suggest this may be because music disrupts verbal working memory.
The third experiment – exposure to music with familiar lyrics- impaired creativity regardless of whether the music also boosted mood, induced a positive mood, was liked by the participants, or whether participants normally studied with music being played. But there was no significant difference in performance of the verbal tasks between the quiet and library noise conditions. Researchers say this is because library noise is a ‘steady state’ environment which is not as disruptive.
‘To conclude, the findings here challenge the popular view that music enhances creativity, and instead demonstrate that music, regardless of the presence of semantic content (no lyrics, familiar lyrics or unfamiliar lyrics), consistently disrupts creative performance in insight problem solving.’
This unbiased, independent survey (not funded by the piped music industry in any manner) confirms earlier research from Swansea University and contradicts familiar arguments in favour of piped music.
Recently several members, with acute hearing problems such as tinnitus and dystonia but who are not actually deaf, have announced that they are willing to confront shops, restaurants, banks and other places that fail to provide for their condition. (The Equality Act of 2010 ‘requires service providers to make a reasonable adjustment for disabled people to make sure that they are not places at a substantial disadvantage compared to non-disabled people. This may include such actions are accommodating requests for communications to be conducted in a particular format.’ See the post for 28 October 2018). As most establishments are probably quite unaware of the Equality Act, initial reactions may be bafflement and even disbelief. However, pointing out the Act’s implication could lead many places to reconsider their piped music policies, for they are unlikely to want to be seen to be breaking the law. We will be producing a new card along these lines for members’ benefit.
Quiet Scotland (Pipedown Scotland) now has an on-line forum or chat site where members can exchange views, ask questions, share news or just chat. To access the forum, go to the main website (www.quietscotland.org.uk), then click on the “Forum” link at the top of the page. NB The forum will be visible in Google, and anybody – not just Quiet Scotland members – will be able to read its contents. So don’t post anything that might be considered sensitive or confidential. To post to the forum you will need to register. This is a simple one-off process. Just click the “Register” link in the black menu bar near the top of the page.
Quiet Scotland has tried to keep the whole thing as simple as possible. If you get stuck, look at the Help pages (from the green link near the top-right corner). If you can’t register or log in, email firstname.lastname@example.org. If Quiet Scotland’s forum proves a success, Pipedown UK may start its own forum.
Tesco in Marlborough has introduced a Quiet Hour’ every Wednesday from 2-3pm. Nicola Barker, a customer who finds noise physically painful, protested and Matt Jones, the branch manager, listened to her protests and decided to act. ‘We wanted to help our customers and make shopping easier for them,’ he said. Not only piped music but tannoy announcements and bright lights are muted during this weekly hour of peace. Since introducing the Quiet Hour, staff in Marlborough have noticed ‘many more customers benefitting from the less intense experience.’ There is as yet no plan by Tesco to expand Quiet Hours nationally, however. There should be so we need to keep writing to Tesco’s CEO Dave Lewis email@example.com
Meanwhile the Co-op has been running similar ‘autism awareness hours’ at some of their branches across the country and will be ‘running more going forward.’ Email Steve Murrells the CEO to encourage him with these awareness hours at firstname.lastname@example.org
Marks and Spencer has finished its ‘trialling’ of piped music in 35 stores around the UK. What happens next – whether it reinstates piped music or sticks to its quiet policy – is chiefly up to us. We need to keep protesting to its head office and in local branches. Its CEO is Steve Rowe email@example.com
A person unable to walk is clearly and visibly disabled. Someone who is blind is equally clearly disabled. But people afflicted by whole range of invisible disabilities – from tinnitus to GAD (general anxiety disorder), from misophonia and dystonia to autism, from presbycusis to hyperacusis to ME – often do not appear disabled. Yet in important ways they are. For such people piped music is no mere irritant but a crippling torment. This applies also to those with general hearing problems (one in six of the population, according to Action on Hearing Loss). All these people in effect suffer from an Invisible Disability. And almost nothing is being done for them. Recent moves to provide the odd Quiet Hour by ASDA and Morrisons are still little more than tokenism. Many organisations, from banks to hospitals to restaurants, are arguably breaking existing law.
According to the Department for Work and Pensions, the Equality Act of 2010 “requires service providers to make a reasonable adjustment for disabled people to make sure that they are not places at a substantial disadvantage compared to non-disabled people. This may include such actions are accommodating requests for communications to be conducted in a particular format. A failure by a service provider to make reasonable adjustment for a disabled person could amount to direct disability discrimination under the Act. (My italics.) What is ‘reasonable’ will vary from one situation to another because of factors such as the practicality of making the adjustment, the cost of the adjustment and the resources available to different providers.”
As the cost of adjusting – i.e. turning off – piped music is almost nil, and it is very easy, there seems no valid reason why all organisations should not be expected to turn off their piped music when requested to do so. Those who fail to do so are guilty of discrimination.
The DWP adds: “If a person feels they have been discriminated against, the Equality Advisory and Support Service (EASS) provides free bespoke advice and in depth support to individuals with discrimination concerns.” The EASS can be contacted: firstname.lastname@example.org or Freephone 0808 800 0082 or FREEPOST EASS HELPLINE FPN 6521
The DWP concludes: “The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) has a monitoring and enforcement role in relation to the Equality Act 2010. It has a power to enforce a breach of any of the Act’s provisions, including the disability discrimination provisions, and to challenge organisations where required.”
Any individuals who fall into one of the ‘invisibly disabled’ categories ought to challenge places with piped music, utilising this and other information. Do tell Pipedown of your experiences – setbacks as well as victories – so that we can collate information and approach the Department of Health and the Noise Team at DEFRA with our findings.
(Many thanks to Anne Brown who winkled out this information and suggested the phrase.)
Piped music is a global problem but one best dealt with nationally, even locally. Each country has specific problems.
Katie, who lives in Toronto, plans to start a Canadian branch of Pipedown. If you live in Canada – or even just across the border in the USA – do contact her at email@example.com
It is very early days yet but there should be a Pipedown Canada website up soon.
Stevan Hezseltine, one of our most eloquent and energetic members, is starting a local group around Carshalton Beeches and north Surrey. He welcomes supporters. If interested, ring him on 020 8642 6388. (He prefers lively conversation on the phone to the deadness of email.) Whatever happens at his meetings, they are most unlikely to be dull!
Morrisons, the supermarket chain, is introducing a Quiet Hour every Saturday morning. Its 439 UK stores will turn off their piped music, dim lights, avoid using the tannoy and turn down check-out beeps from 09:00 to 10:00. Morrisons is the first major supermarket chain to roll out the scheme to all stores nationwide.
The National Autistic Society called it a ‘step in the right direction’. It is indeed only a step because, although Morrison’s initiative is welcome, one hour per week of quiet shopping is not nearly enough! Nor are the estimated nearly 700,000 people (1% of the nation) with autism the only ones who find piped music deeply upsetting. The 15% of the population with hearing problems – which can include everything from tinnitus, presbycusis and misphonia to moderate deafness – also detest piped music. So of course do many people with perfect hearing.
Other chains are considering following suit. Asda said a number of its supermarkets across the country already worked with local groups to run quiet hours on a regular basis. It added it was working with specialist charity groups to ensure its stores were inclusive for all.
Tesco said it was not planning on rolling out the initiative nationwide, but store managers were welcome to introduce it if they felt it appropriate – as one store in Alloa, Clackmannanshire, did last year. And Sainsbury’s said more than 600 of its stores took part in the National Autistic Society’s Autism Hour in October last year and will be doing so again this year. In three of its Liverpool-based stores, where staff have received training, parents can request a number of store modifications when they begin their shopping trip, it added.
All such moves should be applauded and the chains concerned urged to extend their Quiet Hours greatly. Write to David Potts, CEO of Morrisons, congratulating him and urging him to extend the scheme to other days/times of the week. firstname.lastname@example.org